3201 Baker Street
San Francisco, California 94123
Curriculae Vitae, updated Jan. 1, 2007
BA, Political Science, University of California, Berkeley, 1966
Graduate study, Political Science, UCLA, 1966-67
Ballot Access News, Editor 1985-Present
Editor of newsletter covering legal, legislative and political developments of interest to minor parties and independent candidates. Researcher of ballot access laws of all 50 states from years 1888-present; well versed in how ballot access laws of each state work historically and how they compare to each other. Responsible for reading all statutes, regulations, legal opinions, and state attorney general opinions on rights of political parties and the publications of minor parties.
On the Editorial Board of Election Law Journal, published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.,
Larchmont, N.Y., since 2001.
Wrote a chapter or two in each of these books:
edited by Ronald Hayduk and Kevin Mattson (2002: Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, Md.)
The Encyclopedia of Third Parties in America
edited by Immanuel Ness and James Ciment(2000: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., Armonk, N.Y.)
Multiparty Politics in America
edited by Paul S. Herrnson (1997: Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, Md.)
The New Populist Reader
edited by Karl Trautman (1997: Praeger, Westport, Ct.)
Additional articles published in these periodicals:
Wall Street Journal
American Review of Politics
The Long Term View
University of Mass. Law Review
Election Law Journal (two articles)
ClevelandState Law Review
Price Costco Connection
Fordham Urban Law Journal
NATIONAL INTERVIEWS on Minor Parties, Independents, Ballots and Ballot Access
NBC National Public Radio
ABC Pacifica Radio
CASES: TESTIMONY or AFFIDAVITS (political party or candidate prevailing, or case pending)
Alabama: Swanson v Bennett (pending in 11th circuit).
Alaska: Libertarian Party v Coghill, state superior court, 3rd dist., 3AN-92-08181, 1992
Court issued injunction enjoining enforcement of petition deadline for minor parties
Arizona (2 cases): Campbell v Hull, 73 F Supp 2d 1081 (1999); Az. Libt. Party v Hull,
superior court, Maricopa Co. 96-13996, 1996. Court ordered Secretary of State to place Libertarian
Party presidential candidate on ballot.
Arkansas (3 cases): Citizens to Establish a Reform Party v Priest, 970 F Supp 690 (E.D. Ark. 1996);
Green Party of Ark. v Priest, 159 F.Supp.2d (E.D. Ark. 2001); Green Party of Ark. v Daniels, U.S.
District Court, 448 F.Supp 2d 1056 (E.D.Ark. 2006).
California: California Democratic Party v Jones, 530 US 567 (2000).
Colorado: Ptak v Meyer, 94-N-2250, U.S. Dist. Ct., 1994. Court ordered Secretary of State to place
Libertarian legislative candidate on ballot.
Florida (2 cases): Libt. Party of Fla. v Mortham, 4:96cv258-RH, U.S. Dist. Ct., N.D., 1996.
Court ordered Secretary of State to place Libertarian vice-presidential candidate on ballot. Reform
Party v Black, 885 So.2d 303 (Fla. 2004).
Georgia: Bergland v Harris, 767 F 2d 1551 (11th cir., 1985). U.S. Court of Appeals
remanded case back to U.S. District Court. Before U.S. District Court acted, legislature
substantially eased law, so case became moot.
Hawaii: Libt. Party of Hi. v Waihee, cv 86-439, U.S. Dist. Ct., 1986. Court ordered Lieutenant
Governor to extend petition deadline for new parties.
Illinois: (2 cases): Nader v Ill. State Bd. of Elections, 00-cv-4401, U.S. Dist. Ct., N.D., 2000.
Court ordered State Board of Elections to place candidate on ballot. Lee v Ill. State Bd. of Elections,
463 F.3d 763 (7th cir. 2006).
Iowa: Oviatt v Baxter, 4:92-10513, U.S. Dist. Ct., 1992. Court ordered Secretary of State to put
Grassroots Party candidate for Congress on ballot.
Kansas: Merritt v Graves, 87-4264-R, U.S. Dist. Ct., 1988. State did not defend three election laws
and signed consent decree on independent petition deadline, requirement that independent petitions not
be circulated outside of circulator's home precinct, and requirement that voters could only register in
qualified parties. This case should not be confused with another by the same name decided in
Kentucky: Libt. Pty. of Ky. v Ehrler, 776 F Supp 1200 (E.D. 1991)
Maryland (2 cases): Dixon v Md. State Adm. Bd. of Elec. Laws, 878 F 2d 776 (1989, 4th
cir.); Green Party v Bd. of Elections, 832 A 2d 214 (Md. 2003).
Nevada (2 cases): Libt Pty. of Nev. v Swackhamer, 638 F Supp 565 (1986); Fulani v Lau,
cv-N-92-535, U.S. Dist. Ct., 1992. Court ordered Secretary of State to put various minor parties
New Jersey (2 cases): Council of Alternative Political Parties v Hooks, 999 F Supp 607 (1998);
Council of Alternative Political Parties v State Div. of Elections, 781 A 2d 1041
(N.J.Super. A.D. 2001).
New York (3 cases): Molinari v Powers, 82 F Supp 57 (E.D.N.Y. 2000); Schulz w Williams,
44 F 3d 48 (2nd cir., 1994); Green Party of N.Y. v N.Y. State Bd. of Elections,
389 F.3d 411 (2nd cir., 2004).
North Carolina: Obie v N.C. Bd. of Elections, 762 F Supp 119 (E.D. 1991); DeLaney v Bartlett,
370 F.Supp.2d 373 (M.D. 2004).
Ohio: Libertarian Party of Ohio v Blackwell, 462 F.3d 579 (6th cir. 2006).
Oklahoma: Atherton v Ward, 22 F Supp 2d 1265 (W.D. Ok. 1998).
Pennsylvania: Patriot Party of Pa. v Mitchell, 826 F Supp 926 (E.D. 1993).
South Dakota: Nader v Hazeltine, 110 F Supp 2d 1201 (2000).
Texas: Pilcher v Rains, 853 F 2d 334 (5th cir., 1988).
Virginia: Libt. Pty of Va. v Quinn, 3:01-cv-468, U.S. Dist. Ct., E.D. (2001). Court ordered
State Board of Elections to print "Libertarian" party label on ballot next to name of Libertarian
West Virginia (3 cases): State ex rel Browne v Hechler, 476 SE 2d 559 (Supreme Court 1996);
Nader v Hechler, 112 F.Supp.2d 575 (S.D.W.V., 2000); McClure v Manchin, 301 F Supp 2d
CASES: TESTIMONY or AFFIDAVITS (political party or candidate not prevailing)
Arizona: (2 cases) Indp. Amer. Party v Hull, civ 96-1240, U.S. Dist. Ct., 1996; Browne
v. Bayless, 46 P 3d 416 (2002).
Arkansas (2 cases): Langguth v McKuen, LR-C-92-466, U.S. Dist. Ct., E.D., 1992;
Christian Populist Party v Sec. of State, 650 F Supp 1205 (E.D. 1987).
California: Socialist Workers Party v Eu, 591 F 2d 1252 (9th cir., 1978).
Florida (2 cases): Fulani v Smith, 92-4629, Leon Co. Circuit Court, 1992; Libertarian
Party of Fla. v State of Fla., 710 F 2d 790 (11th cir., 1983).
Georgia (2 cases): Libertarian Party of Ga. v Cleland, 1:94-cv-1503-CC, U.S. Dist. Ct.,
N.D. (1994); Esco v Secretary of State, E-53493, Fulton Co. Superior Court, 1998.
Idaho: Nader v Cenarrusa, cv 00-503, U.S. Dist. Ct., 2000.
Illinois: Libt Party v Rednour, 108 F 3d 768 (7th cir., 1997).
Kansas: Hagelin for President Committee v Graves, 804 F Supp 1377 (1992).
Maine (2 cases): Maine Green Party v Diamond, 95-318, U.S. Dist. Ct., 1995; Maine
Green Party v Secretary of State, 96-cv-261, U.S. Dist. Ct., 1996.
Maryland (2 cases): Ahmad v Raynor, R-88-869, U.S. Dist. Ct., 1988; Creager v State
Adm. Bd. of Election Laws, AW-96-2612, U.S. Dist. Ct., 1996.
Missouri: Manifold v Blunt, 863 F 2d 1368 (8th cir. 1988).
New Hampshire: Werme v Gov. of N.H., 84 F 3d 479 (1st cir., 1996).
North Carolina: Nader v Bartlett, 00-2040, 4th cir., 2000.
Ohio: Schrader v Blackwell, 241 F 2d 783 (6th cir., 2001).
Oklahoma (3 cases): Rainbow Coalition v Okla. State Elec. Bd., 844 F 2d 740 (1988);
Nader v Ward, 00-1340, U.S. Dist. Ct., 1996; Clingman v Beaver, __US__(May 2005).
Oregon: Libt Party v Roberts, 737 P 2d 137 (Ore. Ct. of Appeals, 1987).
Texas (2 cases): Texas Indp. Party v Kirk, 84 F 3d 178 (5th cir., 1996); Nat. Comm. of
U.S. Taxpayers Party v Garza, 924 F Supp 71 (W.D. 1996).
Virginia: Wood v Meadows, 207 F 3d 708 (4th cir., 2000).
West Virginia: Fishbeck v Hechler, 85 F 3d 162 (4th cir., 1996).
Wyoming: Spiegel v State of Wyoming, 96-cv-1028, U.S. Dist. Ct., 1996.
QUALIFIED EXPERT WITNESS
Fishbeck v Hechler, 85 F 3d 162 (4th cir. 1996, West Virginia case)
Council of Alternative Political Parties v Hooks, 999 F Supp 607 (1998, N.J.)
Citizens to Establish Reform Party v Priest, 970 F Supp 690 (E.D. Ark, 1996)
Atherton v Ward, 22 F Supp 2d 1265 (W.D.Ok. 1998)
Calif. Democratic Party v Jones, 530 US 567 (2000)
Swanson v Bennett, not reported, U.S. Dist. Ct., m.d.Ala. (02-T-644-N)
Beaver v Clingman, 363 F 3d 1048 (10th cir., 2004, Okla. case)
Green Pty v N.Y. Bd. Elec., 267 F Supp 2d 342 (EDNY 2003), 389 F.3d 411 (2nd 2004)
Lawrence v Blackwell, 430 F.3d 368 (6th cir. 2005)
In all cases in which I was presented as an expert, the opposition accepted that designation, except in the Green Party of New York case. The U.S. District Court ruled that I qualify as an expert. See headnote #1 at page 342, and footnote nine on page 350. The 2nd circuit agreed, 389 F.3d 411 (2004), at 421.
SPEAKING ENGAGEMENTS: Colleges and Scholarly Meetings
Panel of New York City Bar Association, 1994. Ballot access.
Amer. Political Science Assn., nat. conventions of August 1995 and August 1996. Papers.
Capital University School, law school class, Columbus, Ohio, 1996. Guest lecturer.
Cal. State U., course in political science, Hayward, 1993 and 1996. Guest lecturer.
San Francisco City College, course in political science, 1996 and 1997. Guest lecturer.
Providence College, R.I., Oct. 1997, seminar on ballot access.
Harvard U., JFK School of Gov't, Oct. 18, 1995, guest lecturer, ballot access.
Voting Integrity Project national conference, Apr. 1, 2000, speaker on ballot access.
Center for Voting & Democracy nat. conference, Nov. 30, 2003, speaker on ballot access.