Examples of research findings on alcoholism,
WHO has the problem

Leroy J. Pletten

Researchers provide much data on a key underlying factor in alcoholism. If adhered to, this would prevent much tragedy including drunk driving. What is it that medical analysts and doctors have found?

"Nearly all alcoholics, recovered or otherwise, are heavy smokers," observed Arthur Cain, M.D., in The Cigarette Habit: An Easy Cure (NY: Dolphin Books, 1964), p 4.

Dr. Forest S. Tennant, Jr., "pointed out that in almost every case adults who have problems with alcohol are cigarette smokers." 27 Smoke Signals (#1) 1 (Jan 1981).

"Smoking prevalence among active alcoholics approaches 90%."- J. T. Hayes, K. P. Offord, I. T. Croghan, D. R. Schroeder, R. D. Hurt (ASAM), D. E. Jorenby, "Alcoholism and Nicotine Dependence Treatment," 15 Journal of Addictive Diseases 135 (1996); conclusion supported by L. C. Sobell, M. B. Sobell, L. T. Kozloski, and T. Toneatto, et al., "Alcohol or Tobacco Research vs Alcohol and Tobacco Research," 85 Br J Addict (#2) 263-269 (Feb 1990); and J. Istvan and J. D. Matarazzo, "Tobacco, Alcohol and Caffeine Use: A Review of Their Interrelationships, 95 Psychol Bull (#2) 310-326 (March 1984).

This is ancient data, long known:

  • "[T]he antidotal effect of tobacco makes drinking of stimulating liquors the natural consequence of smoking."-Dr. Albert L. Gihon, in The Surgeon General's Report (1881).
  • "[Tobacco] is unquestionably the greatest obstacle existing to the progress of temperance; and never will this cause triumph; never will alcoholic drinks be discarded as a beverage, until tobacco ceases to be used . . ."-The Mysteries of Tobacco, by Rev. Benjamin I. Lane (New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1845), p 87.
  • "It is my conviction that while the use of tobacco continues, intemperance will continue to curse the world; the use of tobacco leads to the use of intoxicating drinks. They are all of one family." Lane, supra, p 145.
  • "[S]moking, even in what is called a moderate degree . . . acts as an inducement to drinking-thus becoming the source of intemperance, and all its accompanying evils. It is notorious that the practices are, almost without exception, inseparably associated. The remark has become a maxim: "Smoking induces drinking, drinking jaundice, and jaundice death."-The Use and Abuse of Tobacco, by Surgeon John Lizars (Edinburgh, Scotland: 1859), pages 50-51. Wherefore Dr. Lizars in 1859 recommended a total ban on tobacco sales, to both adults and youth, see p 49. (His book was reprinted in 1883 here in America.)
  • "Smoking is also said to induce an inclination to strong drinks. The ill effects of the tobacco seem to be momentarily counteracted by the alcohol, and the stimulating effects of the intoxicating liquors are moderated by the tobacco. Thus it happens that drinkers are always smokers, and thus it is also that smoking often leads to drinking."-Dr. John Hinds, The Use of Tobacco (Nashville, Tenn: Cumberland Presbyterian Publishing House, 1882), pp 125-126.
  • "In my experience non-smokers hardly ever become drunkards, while nearly all drunkards are smokers."-Herbert H. Tidswell, M.D., The Tobacco Problem (London: J. & A. Churchill, 1912), p 41.
  • Smoking "tends to produce a huskiness of the mouth, which calls for some liquid. Water is too insipid, as the nerves of taste are in a half-palsied state, from the influence of tobacco-smoke; hence, in order to be tasted, an article of a pungent or stimulating character is resorted to, and hence the kindred habits of smoking and drinking."-Reuben D. Mussey, M.D., LL.D., Health: Its Friends and Its Foes (Boston: Gould & Lincoln, 1862), p 104.
  • "Naturally, one drug habit leads to another. It is rare to find an alcoholic who does not use tobacco in some form and often other drugs are used. There is a special reason for the association of the alcohol and tobacco habits; a physiologic reason: Alcohol is a drug antidote for tobacco. Tobacco contracts the small arteries. This is the reason for the pallor observed in young smokers and in old smokers who have smoked to excess. Alcohol produces the opposite effect. It dilates the small arteries. This is the reason for the flushed face of the beer drinker and the red nose of the whiskey toper. A man who has smoked until his arteries are contracted, feels tense, nervous, irritable, restless, in spite of the narcotic effects of the drug. His blood-pressure is high and his breath a little "short." Besides, his secretions are checked, his mouth is dry. Alcohol reverses these conditions. A cocktail or a toddy, a glass of champagne or a bottle of beer, relaxes the blood-vessels, relieves the nerve tension, restores comfort and so opens the way for more cigars."-John H. Kellogg, M.D., LL.D., F.A.C.S., Tobaccoism, or, How Tobacco Kills (Battle Creek, Michigan: Modern Medicine Pub Co, 1922), pp 125-126.
  • And, "c'est tabac qui pousse aux liqueurs fortes, comme antidote de se effets toxiques."-Dr. Hippolyte A. Depierris, Physiologie Sociale: Le Tabac (Paris: Dentu, 1876), pp 367 and 304, respectively. (Tobacco leads to strong drink (as an antidote to tobacco's toxic effects), and leads to delirium tremens).
  • "Rum drinking will not cease, till tobacco chewing, and tobacco smoking, and snuff-taking, shall cease. Though all who are attached to the quid, the pipe, or the snuffbox, are not attached to the bottle; yet a vast multitude become attached to the bottle, and this attachment is continual and increased, through the poisonous, bewitching, and debasing influence of tobacco."-Rev. Orin S. Fowler, Disquisition on the Evils of Using Tobacco, and the Necessity of Immediate and Entire Reformation (Providence: S. R. Weeden, 1833), p 4.
  • "One of the usual effects of smoking and chewing is thirst. This thirst cannot be allayed by water, for no sedative or even insipid liquor will be relished after the mouth and throat have been exposed to the stimulus of the smoke, or juice of Tobacco. A desire of course is excited for strong drink, and these when taken between meals soon lead to intemperance and drunkenness. One of the greatest sots I ever knew, acquired a love for ardent spirits by swallowing cuds of Tobacco, which he did, to escape detection in the use of it, for he had contracted the habit of chewing, contrary to the advice and commands of his father. He died of a Dropsy under my care in the year 1780."-Dr. Benjamin Rush, First U.S. Surgeon General, "Observations Upon the Influence of the Habitual Use of Tobacco Upon Health, Morals, and Property" (Philadelphia: T. & W. Bradford Pub, 1798), p 267.
  • Wherefore, in 1892, WCTU members during the term of Francis Willard, M.S., M.A., LL.D., (1879-1898) sent Congress thousands of petitions for banning cigarettes. Congress reacted by . . . doing nothing, having no sincere interest in preventing alcoholism!